Gesner, Conrad. De Omni Rerum Fossilium Genere. ,
De Omne Rerum Fossilium (1565) is a compilation by Conrad Gesner (1516-1565) of eight works on gemstones. It contains Epiphanius’s treatise on Biblical stones, as well as Fanciscus Rueus’ De Gemmis Aliquot, a general treatise on stones published in 1547. It also contains an original writing by Gesner, Lapidum et Gemmarum, which classified stones by their external characteristics into fifteen categories. Its publication marked the first time a purely mineralogical work was illustrated with woodcuts of minerals, crystals, fossils, and cut gems. The work perpetuates the classification and naming of stones by color and the tradition of differentiating within classes by place names. In his system true emerald is called “Occidental emerald”, tourmaline is called “Brazilian emerald”, green sapphire is “Oriental emerald”, and yellow or orange sapphires are called “Oriental topaz”. The tradition of using these misnomers has continued in the jewelry trade to the present day.