Paraiba is a tourmaline variety noted for its neon blue and green colors. It was discovered in 1989 in the Paraiba state of Brazil, but stones are also found in the neighboring state Rio Grande do Norte, as well as in Africa. Elemental copper is an important factor in determining the color of the stones and is unique to Paraiba tourmaline. In addition, the occurrence of manganese can cause violet to red colors. These exciting colors are not revealed until the specimens are cut.