Synthetic gemstones are artificially created gemstones that have the same chemical build up as their natural counterparts. They therefore harbour the same optical and physical properties as their natural counterparts. Under these conditions a well-known gem material like Cubic Zirconia, although artificial, is no synthetic gemstone since it has no natural counterpart it is an imitation gem.
These stones carry the name of the natural stone with the prefix: ‘synthetic’, e.g. synthetic sapphire. There are several gemstone varieties that are known to have been synthesized, the most important ones being listed below:
- Beryl, including bright red beryl and neon Green Beryl which is used as a Tourmaline simulant
In order to make the different artificial materials, different methods of synthesis are carried out. Most monocrystalline material is produced by one of the following methods:
- Crystallization from a melt
- Crystallization from a solution
- Examples: flux melt, hydrothermal method
To make diamonds enormous pressures are required and special techniques have been developed to achieve the synthesis of diamond. These are called the Belt process and the Bars, or Split sphere apparatus.
- Natural Forsterite isn’t used as a gem material, the artificial variety is never used to ‘fake’ natural Forsterite so it is always a simulant but since there is a natural counterpart the artificial variety falls under the ‘synthetics’.